Influence of Physical Activity on Microcirculatory Changes in Healthy Pregnant Women

Volume 11, Issue 2 (2021)

Influence of Physical Activity on Microcirculatory Changes in Healthy Pregnant Women
Vesna Ljubojević, Vlatka Bojanić, Saša Skočić Smoljanović
In pregnancy physical activity is considered as a preventive measure for diseases of the cardiovascular system. In studies, the data on microvascular adaptation in pregnancy are scarce. The prenatal program included 35 pregnant women who exercised and 35 women who did not. The shape of the capillaries of the nail skin fold was analyzed with capillaroscopy. At the beginning of the study, the shape of the capillary was normal in all pregnant women. After 8 weeks in 40.91% of pregnant women who exercised and in 47.06% of pregnant women who did not exercise, the shape of the capillary loop was abnormal with bending of the limbs, tortuosity of the limbs, and crossing of the limbs. After the 8th week of the prenatal program, no significant difference in the shape of the capillary loop of the nail skin fold was found between pregnant women who performed prenatal exercises and pregnant women who did not.
activity, physical, microcirculation, capillaroscopy, morphology, pregnancy
Full Text: 
American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2015). Physical activity and exercise during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Committee Opinion No. 650.Obstet Gynecol, 126(6), e135-142.
Barakat, R., Pelaez, M., Cordero, Y., Perales, M., Lopez, C., Coteron, J., Mottola, M.F. (2016). Exercise during pregnancy protects against hypertension and macrosomia: randomized clinical trial. American journal of obstetrics and gynecology, 214(5), 505-507.
da Silva, S. G., Hallal, P. C., Domingues, M. R., Bertoldi, A. D., da Silveira, M. F., Bassani, D., & Evenson, K. (2017). A randomized controlled trial of exercise during pregnancy on maternal and neonatal outcomes: results from the PAMELA study. The International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 14(1), 1-11.
Deliens, T., Versele, V., Eynde, H.V., Clarys, P., Devlieger, R., Bogaerts, A., … & Aerenhouts, D. (2019). Body weight, body composition and energy balance related behaviour during the transition to parenthood: study protocol of a multi-centre observational follow-up study (TRANSPARENTS). BMC public health, 19(1), 1-9.
Filipec, M. (2019). Utjecaj terapijskoga vježbanja na smanjenje sakroilijakalne disfunkcije u trudnoći [The influence of exercise on reduction of sacroiliac dysfunction in pregnancy] Doctoral dissertation. Zagreb: Sveučilište u Zagrebu Medicinski fakultet. [in Croatian]
Gurfinkel, Y. I., Sasonko, M. L., Kuznetzov, M. I., & Priezzhev, A. V. (2015). Importance of image processing in digital optical capillaroscopy for early diagnostics of arterial hypertension. In 2015 International Conference on BioPhotonics (BioPhotonics) (pp. 1-4). IEEE.
Haakstad, L. A., Edvardsen, E., & Bø, K. (2016). Effect of regular exercise on blood pressure in normotensive pregnant women. A randomized controlled trial. Hypertension in pregnancy, 35(2), 170-180.
Nama, V., Antonios, T. F., Onwude, J., & Manyonda, I. T. (2012). Capillary remodelling in normal pregnancy: Can it mediate the progressive but reversible rise in blood pressure? Novel insights into cardiovascular adaptation in pregnancy. Pregnancy Hypertension: An International Journal of Women’s Cardiovascular Health, 2(4), 380-386.
Poston, L., Caleyachetty, R., Cnattingius, S., Corvalán, C., Uauy, R., Herring, S., & Gillman, M. W. (2016). Preconceptional and maternal obesity: epidemiology and health consequences. The lancet Diabetes & endocrinology, 4(12), 1025-1036.
Santos, C. M. D., Santos, W. M. D., Gallarreta, F. M. P., Pigatto, C., Portela, L. O. C., & Morais, E. N. D. (2016). Effect of maternal exercises on biophysical fetal and maternal parameters: a transversal study. Einstein (São Paulo), 14(4), 455-460.
Stutzman, S. S., Brown, C. A., Hains, S. M., Godwin, M., Smith, G. N., Parlow, J. L., & Kisilevsky, B. S. (2010). The effects of exercise conditioning in normal and overweight pregnant women on blood pressure and heart rate variability. Biological research for nursing, 12(2), 137-148.
Szumilewicz, A., Worska, A., Piernicka, M., Kuchta, A., Kortas, J., Jastrzębski, Z., Radzimiński, Ł., Jaworska, J., Micielska, K., Ziemann, E. (2017). The exercise-induced irisin is associated with improved levels of glucose homeostasis markers in pregnant women participating in 8-week prenatal group fitness program: a pilot study. BioMed Research International, 17, 1-10.
Thevissen, K, & Gyselaers, W. (2017). Capillaroscopy in pregnancy. Expert review of medical devices, 14(12), 961-967. 
Vargas-Terrones, M., Nagpal, T. S., Barakat, R. (2019). Impact of exercise during pregnancy on gestational weight gain and birth weight: an overview. Brazilian journal of physical therapy, 23(2), 164-169.
Vasapollo B, Lo Presti D, Gagliardi G, Farsetti D, Tiralongo G. M., Pisani I, Novelli GP, Valensise, H. (2018). Restricted physical activity in pregnancy reduces maternal vascular resistance and improves fetal growth. Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology, 51(5), 672-6.
Vojvodić-Schuster, S. (2004). Vježbe za trudnice: cjeloviti program vježbanja kroz tromjesečja i priprema za porođaj. Zagreb: Biovega. [in Croatian]