Quality of Life and Physical Conditioning in Women

Volume 13, Issue 2 (2023)

Quality of Life and Physical Conditioning in Women
Dejan Milenković, Ivana Zubić, Nataša Nikić

The aim of this study was to determine the diff erences in the level of quality of life and physical conditioning
between women who are engaged in some form of recreational exercise and women who do not have organized physical
exercise. The study involved 60 women of 25 to 45 years old divided into a group engaged in recreational exercise at least
a year (30) and a group of non-exercisers (30). A quality of life questionnaire was used to examine the attitudes about the
level of quality of life, while a battery of diagnostic tests in the level of physical fi tness was assessed. T-test for independent
samples was used to compare the two groups. The results showed statistically signifi cant diff erences in favor of exercisers when it comes
to the expression of overall quality of life, as well as the dimensions of mental and physical health and environmental impact. Observing
physical performance, women who actively exercise showed a higher degree of physical fi tness compared to physically inactive respondents.
Therefore, it can be concluded that physical activity has a positive eff ect on improving quality of life and physical conditioning in
women who are engaged in some form of recreational activity.

physical exercise, mental and physical health, exercisers, non-exercisers
Full Text: 

Ač-Nikolić, E., Čanković, S., Draganić, N. & Radić, I. (2010). Ispitivanje validnosti i pouzdanosti WHOQOL-BREF upitnika za populaciju
starih u Vojvodini (Validation and reliability testing of WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire for the elderly population in Vojvodina). Zbornik
Matice srpske za društvene nauke, 131, 211–220. https://www.ceeol.com/search/article-detail?id=600399. [in Serbian]
Alcántara, C., Qian, M., Meli, L., Ensari, I., Ye, S., Davidson, K. W. & Diaz, K. M. (2020). Anxiety sensitivity and physical inactivity in a national
sample of adults with a history of myocardial infarction. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 27(5), 520–526. https://
Andermo, S., Hallgren, M., Nguyen, T.T.D., Jonsson, S., Petersen, S., Friberg, M., Romqvist, A., Stubbs, B. & Elinder, L.S. (2020). School-
related physical activity interventions and mental health among children: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sports Medicine
Antunes, R., Fonseca, E., Oliveira, D., Matos, R., Amaro, N., Morouco, P., Coelho, L. & Rebelo-Goncalves, R. (2022). Quality of life, vitality
and handgrip strength in elderly practitioners of physical exercise. Cuadernos de Psicologíadel Deporte, 22(1), 245‒255. https://doi.
Bai Y, Hua B., Zhang F., Zhou W. & Deng B. (2022). Eff ect of diff erent intensity exercises intervention on cardiovascular functions and quality
of life on patients with chronic heart failure: A protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis. Medicine, 14(101), e28554. https://doi.org/10.1097/md.0000000000028554.
Bartolozzi, E. (2015). The natural approach to osteoporosis. Clinical Cases in Mineral and Bone Metabolism, 12(2), 111. https://doi.
Baumgartner, T.A., Oh, S., Chung, H. & Hales, D. (2002). Objectivity, Reliability, and Validity for a Revised Push-Up Test Protocol. Measurement
in Physical Education and Exercise Science, 6(4), 225‒242. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327841MPEE0604_2.
Bélair, M.A., Kohen, D.E., Kingsbury, M. & Colman, I. (2018). Relationship between leisure time physical activity, sedentary behaviour and
symptoms of depression and anxiety: evidence from a population-based sample of Canadian adolescents. BMJ Open, 8(10), e021119.
Bishwajit, G., O’Leary, D.P., Ghosh, S., Yaya, S., Shangfeng, T. & Feng,Z. (2017). Physical inactivity and self-reported depression among
middle- and older-aged population in South Asia: World health survey. BMC Geriatrics, 17(1), 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12877-
Blazevich, A.J., Gill, N. & Newton, R.U. (2002). Reliability and validity of two isometric squattests. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research,
Booth, F.W., Roberts, C.K., Thyfault, J.P., Ruegsegger, G.N. & Toedebusch, R.G. (2017). Role of inactivity in chronic diseases: evolutionary
insight and pathophysiological mechanisms. Physiological Reviews, 97(4), 1351–1402. https://doi.org/10.1152/physrev.00019.2016.
Bowling, A. (2017). Measuring Health: A Review of Subjective Health, Well-Beeing and Quality of Life Measurement Scales, 4th edition.
London: Open University Press.
Brownson, R.C., Boehmer, T.K. & Luke, D.A. (2005). Declining rates of physical activity in the United States: what are the contributors?
Annual Reviews of Public Health, 26, 421–443. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.publhealth.26.021304.144437.
Carr, A., Higginson, I. & Robinson, P. (2002). Quality of Life. Wiley.
Chen, S., Malete, L. & Ling, J. (2022). An examination of physical activity guidelines and health-related quality of life among U.S. older
adults. Preventive Medicine, 156, 106986. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2022.106986.
Cruz-Ferreira, A., Fernandes, J., Gomes, D., Bernardo, L. M., Kirkcaldy, B. D., Barbosa, T. M., & Silva, A. (2011). Eff ects of Pilates-based
exercise on life satisfaction, physical self-concept and health status in adult women. Women & Health, 51(3), 240‒255. https://doi.org
Ebrahimi, Z., Ghandehari, M.R.E. &Veisi, K. (2020). The Eff ect of Physical Activity Based on Intergenerational Programs on the Quality of
Life of Older Adults. Iranian Journal of Ageing, 14(4), 406–421. http://salmandj.uswr.ac.ir/article-1-1499-en.html.
Ekkekakis, P., Vazou, S., Bixby, W.R. & Georgiadis, E. (2016). The mysterious case of the public health guideline that is (almost) entirely ignored:
call for a research agenda on the causes of the extreme avoidance of physical activity in obesity. Obesity Reviews, 17(4), 313–329.
Granero-Jiménez, J., López-Rodrigez, M., Dobarrio-Sanz, I. & Cortés-Roddriguez, A, (2022). Infl uence of Physical Exercise on Psychological
Well-Being of Young Adults: A Quantitative Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(7), 4282.
Guedes, D.P., Hatmann, A.C., Martini, F.A.N., Borges, M.B. & Bernardelli, R. (2012). Quality of Life and Physical Activity in a Sample of
Brazilian Older Adults. Journal of Aging and Health, 24(2), 212‒226. https://doi.org/10.1177/0898264311410693.
Haas, F., Sweeney, G., Pierre, A., Plusch, T. & Whiteson J. (2017). Validation of a 2 Minute Step Test for Assessing Functional Improvement.
Journal of Therapy and Rehabilitation, 5(2), 71‒81. https://doi.org/10.4236/ojtr.2017.52007.
Jia, H., Zack, M.M., Gottesman, I.I. & Thompson, W.W. (2018). Associations of smoking, physical inactivity, heavy drinking, and obesity
with quality-adjusted life expectancy among US adults with depression. Value in Health, 21(3), 364–371. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.
Kandola, A., Ashdown-Franks, G., Hendrikse, J., Sabiston, C.M. & Stubbs, B. (2019). Physical activity and depression: Towards understanding
the antidepressant mechanisms of physical activity. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 107, 525–539. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.
Kang, H-W., Park, M. & Wallace, J.P. (2018). The impact of perceived social support, loneliness, and physical activity on quality of life in
South Korean older adults. Journal of Sport and Health Science, 7(2), 237‒244. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jshs.2016.05.003.
Kudryavtsev, M., Osipov, A., Kokova, E., Kopylov, Y., Iermakov, S., Zhavner, T., Vapaeva, A., Alexandrov, Y., Konoshenko, L. & Görner, K.
(2018). The possibility of increasing cadets’ physical fi tness level of the educational organizations of the Ministry of Internal Aff airs of
Russia with the help of optimal training eff ects via crossfi t. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 18(Suppl. 5), 2022–2028. https://
Lee, M., Lee, H., Song, K.J., & Lee, Y.M. (2022). Benefi ts of Sustained Physical Activity From Middle-Age To Early Old Age On Quality Of
Life In Early Old Age. Research Square. https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3.rs-1219812/v1.
Nogueira, M.A., Almeida, T.D.N., Andrade, G.S., Ribeiro, A.S., Rêgo, A.S., da Silva Dias, R., Ferreira, P.D., Penha, L.R.L.N., de Oliveira
Pires, F., Dibai-Filho, A.V. & Bassi-Dibai, D. (2021). Reliability and accuracy of 2-minute step test in active and sedentary lean adults.
Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 44(2), 120‒127. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmpt.2020.07.013.
Ojeda, A.H., Maliqueo, S.G. & Barahona-Fuentes, G. (2020). Validity and reliability of the Muscular Fitness Test to evaluate body strength-resistance.
Apunts Sports Medicine, 55(208), 128–136. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apunsm.2020.08.002.
Pascoe, M., Bailey, A. P., Craike, M., Carter, T., Patten, R., Stepto, N. & Parker, A. (2020). Physical activity and exercise in youth mental health
promotion: A scoping review. BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine, 6(1), e000677. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjsem-2019-000677.
Porto, D.B., Guedes, D.P., Fernandes, R.A. & Reichert, F.F. (2012). Perceived quality of life and physical activity in Brazilian older adults.
Motricidade, 8(1), 33‒41. https://doi.org/10.6063/motricidade.8(1).237.
Prasad, L., Fredrick, J. & Aruna, R. (2021). The relationship between physical performance and quality of life and the level of physical activity
among the elderly. Journal of Education and Health Promotion, 10, 68. https://doi.org/10.4103/jehp.jehp_421_20.
Puciato, D., Borysiuk, Z. & Rozpara, M. (2017). Quality of life and physical activity in an older working-age population. Clinical Interventions
in Aging, 12, 1627–1634. https://doi.org/10.2147/cia.s144045.
Rodriguez-Ayllon, M., Cadenas-Sánchez, C., Estévez-López, F., Muñoz, N. E., Mora-Gonzalez, J., Migueles, J. H., ... & Esteban-Cornejo, I.
(2019). Role of physical activity and sedentary behavior in the mental health of preschoolers, children and adolescents: a systematic
review and meta-analysis. Sports Medicine, 49(9), 1383–1410. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-019-01099-5.
Ruegsegger, G.N. & Booth, F.W. (2017). Running from disease: molecular mechanisms associating dopamine and leptin signaling in the brain
with physical inactivity, obesity, and type 2 diabetes. Frontiers in Endocrinology, 8, 109. https://doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2017.00109.
Sanchis-Gomar, F., Lucia, A., Yvert, T., Ruiz-Casado, A., Pareja-Galeano, H., Santos-Lozano, A., Fuiza-Luces, C., Garatachea, N., Lippi, G.,
Bouchard, C. & Berger, N. A. (2015). Physical inactivity and low fi tness deserve more attention to alter cancer risk and prognosis.
Cancer Prevention Research, 8(2), 105–110. https://doi.org/10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-14-0320.
Schuch, F., Vancampfort, D., Firth, J., Rosenbaum, S., Ward, P., Reichert, T., Bagatini, N.C., Bgeginski, R. & Stubbs, B. (2017). Physical
activity and sedentary behavior in people with major depressive disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Aff ective
Disorders, 210, 139–150. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2016.10.050.
Shames, A., Nobari, H., Afonso, J., Abbasi, H., Mainer-Pardos, E., Perez-Gomez, J., Bayati, M., Babrami, A. & Carneiro, L. (2021). Eff ect
of Aerobic-Based Exercise on Psychological Well-Being and Quality of Life Among Older People: A Middle East Study. Frontiers in
Silva, D.A.S., Naghavi, M., Duncan, B.B., Schmidt, M.I., de Souza, M.D.F.M. & Malta, D.C. (2019). Physical inactivity as risk factor for mortality
by diabetes mellitus in Brazil in 1990, 2006, and 2016. Diabetology& Metabolic Syndrome, 11(1), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1186/
Tement, M. & Selič-Zupančič, P. (2021). Quality of life and health status in middle-aged presumed healthy Slovenian family practice attendees.
Slovenian Journal of Public Health, 60(3), 182‒189. https://doi.org/10.2478/sjph-2021-0026.
Weinberg, R.S. & Gould, D. (2019). Foundations of sport and exercise psychology (7th ed.). Human Kinetics.
Yang, S., Wu, W., Zhang, C., Wang, D., Chen, C., Tang, Y., Li, K., Xu, J. & Luo, F. (2020). Reliability and validity of three isometric
back extensor strength assessments with diff erent test postures. Journal of International Medical Research, 48(2), 1‒12. https://doi.
Yeh, C-P., Huang, H-C., Chang, Y., Chen, M-D. & Hsu, M. (2018). The Reliability and Validity of a Modifi ed Squat Test to Predict Cardiopulmonary
Fitness in Healthy Older Men. BioMed Research International, Article ID 4863454. https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/4863454.